a. What is the structure of DNA?
DNA is a double helix composed of a phosphate group, a deoxyribose sugar, and nucleotides. There are two strands of nucleotide chains that are connected by hydrogen bonds. The nucleotides are connected to the sugar (by covalent bonds) which are connected to the phosphate group to create a sugar-phosphate "backbone".
b. What is the function of DNA?
The primary function of DNA in organisms is to store and transmit the genetic information that tells cells which proteins to make and when to make them.
c. How is DNA copied (replicated)?
DNA is replicated by the process of replication. First an enzyme called helicase untwines the the two strands of nucleotides. Then another enzyme called DNA ploymerase attaches to the DNA and attaches new, complementary nucleotides to each chain (Adenine-Thymine and Gaunine-Cytosine). At the end of replication you have two identical molecules of DNA.
d. What is the structure of RNA?
RNA's structure is almost the same as DNA, however, RNA only has a single strain of nucleotides.
e. What are the three types of RNA and what is the function of each type?
The three types of RNA are mRNA (messenger), tRNA (transfer), rRNA (ribosomal).
mRNA (messenger)- The function of mRNA is to carry genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes of a cell.
tRNA (transfer)- The function of tRNA is to bring the correct amino acid to the ribosomes in the cystosol.
rRNA (ribosomal)- The function of rRNA is to create new ribosomes.
f. Where are the DNA and three types of RNA found in the cell?
DNA is located in the in the nucleus of eukaryotic of cells. rRNA is located in the ribosomes that they make up, mRNA can be found in the cytosol, on ribosomes, or in the nuceus depending on what process it is going through. Also, tRNA can be found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
g. How are DNA and RNA alike?
DNA and RNA have many similarities in field of genetics. Both of them contain nucleotides, a sugar molecular, and a phosphate group. Also, both are in envolved in providing information needed for protein synthesis.
h. How are DNA and RNA different?
RNA uses the sugar ribose and DNA uses the sugar deoxyribose. Also, uracil binds to adenine instead of thymine in RNA, not DNA. DNA has two strands, whereas, RNA has only one strand of nucleotides. RNA has three types of itself and DNA only has one type of itself.
Information provided at: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/basics/builddna/